Innovation systems in the form of Technology Poles, Parks and Incubators form an articulated set of agents that connect knowledge and innovation to the productive sphere. At present the tripod companies-education and research institutions-governments constitutes one of the most important tools of technological development and aims at implementing innovative solutions to the problems faced by society¹.
Poles are areas of concentration of teaching and research institutions, public incentives and innovative private enterprises that are formed around one or more innovation systems and may result in the development of local or regional productive arrangements. The basic condition for its creation is the existence of Teaching and Research Institutions of high level, since the fundamental input of these enterprises is scientific and technologic knowledge¹. The Poles may comprise Parks and Incubators.
Parks are industrial and service production complexes, scientific and technology-based, designed and with formal, concentrated and cooperative character, that aggregate companies whose production is based on technological research developed in related R&D centers. Generally they are related to a formal regional planning program, being an important part of economic and technologic development strategy. In the setting of the Technology Park there is a coordinator-manager entity created to facilitate the interaction between the R&D institution and companies, as well as to manage the shared use of resources. In these parks physical structures that house incubators or company condos may be available providing services that give support to start-ups.
Incubators give technical support to micro and small companies undergoing structuring process that develop innovative ideas. In the Incubators there are shared services of capacity building and management support for administrative, commercial, financial and legal issues, as well as other aspects essential to the development of an enterprise. These services help reducing the high mortality rate common among start-ups. The incubators emerged in the 1980s, with the implementation of the first Program of Technology Parks of Brazil by CNPq – Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (National Council for Scientific and Technological Development). The initiative triggered the emergence of business incubators that have become embryos of the first Technology Parks.
In Rio Grande do Sul, in 2017, the State Secretariat of Science, Innovation and Technological Development recognized the existence of 27 Poles among the modalities of Technologic Innovation; Technologic Modernization; Scientific and Technologic Development, and Industrial Modernization. Rio Grande do Sul also has 21 Technology Parks, besides 30 Technology Incubators. Parks and Incubators are more concentrated around Porto Alegre Metropolitan Region, but they also occur along the axes Porto Alegre-Caxias do Sul-Passo Fundo; Porto Alegre-Lajeado-Santa Cruz-Santa Maria, as well as in Pelotas and Alegrete.
¹José Carlos Barbieri. POLOS TECNOLÓGICOS E DE MODERNIZAÇAO: NOTAS SOBRE A EXPERIENCIA BRASILEIRA. Revista de Administração de Empresas. São Paulo, v. 34, n. 5, p, 21-31 Set./Out. 1994.
Alexandro Oto Hanefeld. ECONOMIA E DESENVOLVIMENTO ECONÔMICO: UMA EXPERIÊNCIA A PARTIR DO POLO DE MODERNIZAÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA DO VALE DO RIO PARDO, RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRASIL. 20p.
Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação. ESTUDO, ANÁLISE E PROPOSIÇÕES SOBRE AS INCUBADORAS DE EMPRESAS NO BRASIL– RELATÓRIO TÉCNICO - VERSÃO RESUMIDA. Associação Nacional de Entidades Promotoras de Empreendimentos Inovadores – Brasília : ANPROTEC, 2012. 24 p.: Il
Source: SDECT RS, ANPROTEC, REGINP and sites of incubators