According to PAHO – Pan American Health Organization – wastewaters from human activities must be correctly collected, transported, treated and disposed so as not to threat health and the environment, since they are one of the main causes of proliferation of vector-borne diseases and degradation of the quality of soil and surface and underground waters.
In Brazil, the Population Census 2010 informs that 97.35% out of the total of households have bathroom or toilet for their exclusive use, and 67.06% out of these are connected to the public system of sanitary or storm sewer or to a septic tank. Among the Brazilian states these percentages vary from 22.12% (Rondônia) to 91.44% (São Paulo), and Rio Grande do Sul ranks 6th among the states with the highest rates.
In Rio Grande do Sul, 99.34% out of the total of households have bathroom or toilet for their exclusive use, and 74,57% of these are connected to the public system of sanitary or storm sewer or to a septic tank, therefore presenting rates above the Brazilian ones. However, it must be highlighted that 113 municipalities out of the 496 have more than 50% of households with a bathroom or toilet for their exclusive use connected to a septic tank, and the use of this solution reaches up to 97.25% of the households in municipalities as Poço das Antas. Therefore, between the two most accepted solutions for discharge of domestic sewage in RS, the rate of use of septic tank is still high.
Source: IBGE/Censo Demográfico
Source: IBGE/Censo Demográfico 2010